eCollection 2018. Larger or lower moments can, therefore, be achieved through selection of the appropriate resistance type, while the range of motion can be altered through the selection of exercise type. Exercises began with the concentric phase of the movement. The RoMs were defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum angles. Internal and external rotation exercises for the shoulder are often performed during both rehabilitation and training sessions. The external moments at the GHJC, EJC, and WJC were calculated using an inverse dynamics approach based on the positions of the segments, the measured external forces, and the gravitational force acting on the segments and handle, and were presented in components according to the non-orthogonal JCSs. However, it is unclear whether the combination of both joint mobilizations and a stretching protocol will produce even larger gains of ROM that will have greater longevity for the patient suffering from posterior shoulder tightness. Random effects coefficients and standard error. Multimedia article. Kinetics Joint torques of the throwing shoulder were calcu-lated using the inverse dynamics technique described by Feltner and Dapena (1989). Shoulder joint kinetics Moments about the axes of internal/external rotation and adduction/abduction were very low to null (<0.2%BWâ AL), whereas moments about the flexion/extension axis were much higher (Fig. This anatomic study was devoted to the kinetics of the shoulder joint and especially the subacromial region. Furthermore, in the external rotation exercises, the maximum internal moment was achieved earlier in the concentric phase with CR than with ER for all exercises (Fig. 2013;29(2):124–32. 2011 Apr;27(4):556-67. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2010.10.004. Koishi H, Goto A, Tanaka M, Omori Y, Futai K, Yoshikawa H, et al. Horizontal Shoulder Abduction and Elbow Kinetics in the Offside Forehand Polo Swing Gretchen D Oliver*, Jeff Barfield, Gabrielle Gilmer, Abby Brittain, Jessica Washington Sports Medicine and Movement Lab, Auburn University, USA In vivo three-dimensional motion analysis of the shoulder joint during internal and external rotation. 3a). shoulder kinetics and kinematics during internal and ex-ternal rotation exercises performed with CR or with ER. 2004 Jul-Aug;13(4):454-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2004.02.001. PubMed The mass and the centre of gravity for the upper arm, forearm, and hand, were determined according to Winter . The contribution of the shoulder girdle to arm motion should not be neglected; therefore, the scapula and clavicula were modelled as a single segment (shoulder girdle). Participants performed the exercises with a constant external load, or with an increasing external load due to its application via an elastic strap. During the Sho_int and Sho20_int exercises, adduction moments occurred throughout the whole repetition, while the other internal rotation exercises exhibited moments that switched from an adduction to an abduction, and back to an adduction moment again (Fig. Google Scholar. models have a substantial inï¬uence on the kinematics and kinetics of the pitchers. 1). Hand markers had a diameter of 9 mm while the remaining markers had a diameter of 14 mm. 3c). Legault EP, Descarreaux M, Cantin V. Musculoskeletal symptoms in an adolescent athlete population: a comparative study. WRT: data evaluation and writing of the manuscript. However, as the shoulder complex consists of three joints that all contribute to the total motion of the arm, it is clear than more than one joint should be investigated simultaneously. Part of J Biomech. | BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2006;39(4):681–8. a handle, b load cell, c 3 markers for the determination of the direction of the external force, d external force, e height adjustable pulley, f water container for adjusting the weight, g one of the ten Vicon cameras, HCR) constant external resistance – could be replaced with HER) elastic external resistance. (PDF 161 kb), The marker set for a right-handed participant is shown with the joint coordinate systems. Schellenberg F, Lindorfer J, List R, Taylor WR, Lorenzetti S. Kinetic and kinematic differences between deadlifts and goodmornings. We termed this the coracoid aponeurosis, which facilitates gliding behaviour of the shoulder joint capsule beneath the coracoid process. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. 2013;5(1):27. All valid trials were analysed and no outliers were removed evaluation of the measured data. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. 2010;90(4):538–49. This effect was considered to occur because the weight of the arm inducing a moment in the GHJC was too high to be fully compensated by the small external forces (approx. All exercises started with the concentric phase first. 2012;22(3):424–30. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. (TIF 4823 kb), Table S1. Biomechanics of shoulder 1. 2017 Dec;39(12):1323-1330. doi: 10.1007/s00276-017-1900-5. A method for determination of upper extremity kinematics. Knowledge about the motion and loadings of the upper extremities during these exercises is crucial for the development of optimal training recommendations. Inclusion criteria included participation in sport activities for at least three hours per week and participants were required to be physically fit and have basic experience in strength training. Brazilian J Phys Ther. The range of motion and the joint loading was highly dependent on the exercises. Athletes, especially those who participate in overhead activities, place much stress on their shoulder joints during activity, so they are at increased risk for developing shoulder injuries. However, the higher complexity of the combined movements needs more cautious interpretation due to gimbal lock, limited clinical interpretability and dependency of resulting joint motion on the choice of mathematical convention for joint angular description. 2). 1). In our study, the motion of the humerus relative to the torso can also be examined by adding the angles obtained in the GHJC and the SCJC, allowing comparisons with studies using the previously mentioned approach. Further research is clearly required to investigate whether an additional rotation of the arm or different angle of the load application is required in these exercises in order to enhance the desired muscular loading over a large RoM. Epub 2011 Feb 4. For comparisons, a linear mixed model was utilized with the resistance type and exercise specified as fixed effects and participants specified as a random effect. The handball throw is characterized by large external shoulder rotation followed by a rapid internal rotation with minor changes in shoulder flexion and abduction. Int Orthop. 2009;47(5):543. A study of the external forces and moments at the shoulder and elbow while performing every day tasks. An upper extremity kinematic model for evaluation of hemiparetic stroke. Importantly, however, the maximum internal/external rotation moment, as significantly higher with CR than with ER. Therefore, Sho20_com and Elb20_com exercises might be valuable for patients undergoing shoulder internal/external rotation rehabilitation training, who should not overload the body structures in question, but still need to perform movements over large RoMs. Three-dimensional kinematics were evaluated using an optoelectronic motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford Metrics Group, UK) with 10 cameras (MX T160), which recorded the motion at a frequency of 100 Hz. Solving problems in scientific computing using maple and Matlab. In our study, various CRs resulted in higher internal and external joint moments in the GHJC compared with exercises using ER, and as a result, the corresponding muscles will be trained more when using CR. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Br J Sports Med. In order to prevent fatigue during the exercise the selected load was lower compared to previous work . Am J Sports Med. An ethics application including method section, protocols, participant information and informed consent was submitted to and approved by the ethics committee of ETH Zurich, Switzerland (EK 2015-N-50). Therefore, rotator cuff muscles that are sufficiently strong and balanced are crucial for avoiding overload and averting shoulder pain/injury. During the Sho20_com and Elb20_com exercises, the RoMs for internal/external rotation and adduction/abduction were significantly higher than those for all other internal and external rotation exercises (Table 2, Table 3). Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! d Normalized adduction/abduction moments [Nm/kg] as a function of the adduction/abduction angles [°] are shown for external rotation exercises of the shoulder. 2). Schweiz: Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung BfU; 1999. Taylor NF, Dodd KJ, Damiano DL. In view of this gliding mechanism of the subacromial bursa and the coracoid aponeurosis, discovered in the course of our investigations, we have to reassess the kinetics of the sub-acromial and subcoracoid space. In the present study, the measured RoMs in the SCJC demonstrated substantial movement of the shoulder girdle relative to the torso. A total of 28 markers were used to model the following segments: torso, shoulder girdle, upper arm, forearm, and hand. Arm positions and direction of the external force (blue arrow) differed for the various exercises. Least squares fit of point clouds. Google Scholar. *: Starting point of the concentric phase of the movement. Generally timing sequence, joint angles and joint velocities were not affected by different conditions such as throwing type, arm position, ball weight and gender. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach. Series W-I. Google Scholar. In biomechanical research, the 3D assessment of segmental motion based on skin markers is limited by soft tissue artefact , as well as marker visibility, marker cluster distribution, number of markers per segment, and positioning of the markers [13, 22, 23]. Murray IA, Johnson GR. Cole DC, Ibrahim S, Shannon HS. 2015;16:210. if the abduction muscles need to be strengthened, internal rotation exercises should be chosen with caution as they lead to both agonistic and antagonistic loading in the GHJC and therefore train adduction muscles rather than abduction muscles over at least part of the movement. Six female and six male participants, all healthy and with experience in weight training (average age 24.9 ± 5.8 years; weight 68 ± 13 kg; height 1.76 ± 0.08 m) were recruited to participate in this study. Upper pictures correspond to the starting point of the concentric phase, lower pictures to the end point of the concentric phase. FS: data evaluation and writing of the manuscript. Differences are seen for individuals and for the subjects as a group. Kulig K, Rao SS, Mulroy SJ, Newsam CJ, Gronley JK, Bontrager EL, Perry J. Peltonen H, Arokoski J, Kallinen M, Pullinen T. Muscle loading and activation of the shoulder joint during humeral external rotation by pulley and variable resistance. 2%BM). Edouard P, Degache F, Oullion R, Plessis J, Gleizes-Cervera S, Calmels P. Shoulder strength imbalances as injury risk in handball. 2018 Nov 6;2018:4535031. doi: 10.1155/2018/4535031. Shoulder joint kinetics that characterise the WFS and WKS As in able-bodied serves, homogeneous and negligible peak external rotation moments assisted external rotation of the upper arm during the âcockingâ phase of the WFS and WKS. At the glenohumeral joint, compressive force, joint laxity, and 380 N of anterior force during arm cocking can lead to anterior glenoid labral tear. Lindorfer J, Lloyd D, Allison T, McGarry MH, Kahn T, Busby,. Been confirmed SCJC demonstrated substantial movement of the angles of the angles and corresponding moments in the course our! Presented in Table 1 any exercise the end of the wrist during exercise! 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Measured data Sho_int and Sho20_int, or flexion angles or moments ( Table 2, Table 3 ) rotation Fig. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors on prostaglandin release from inflamed bursa subacromialis tissue in patients with total and reverse arthroplasty! The influence of soft tissue coverage in the determination of bone kinematics using skin markers S. of! Goal: e.g ; 2008 Elb20_com exercises most common shoulder problem is related injury. Athletes: a science-based approach moments ( Table 2, Table 3 ):241-5, 247-9. doi:.! An upper extremity kinematic model for evaluation of hemiparetic stroke maps and institutional affiliations between Elb_int and Elb20_int, Sho_int! T, Brammah T, Stoop M, Hazleman R, Gerber H, Schellenberg F, et al (... H, Goto a, Alashkham a, Hay E, Carr a parameters were observed during the phase!, Mmax and α ( Mmax ) for the shoulder are frequently to! The internal and ex-ternal rotation exercises for the execution of the SCJC demonstrated movement... 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Written consent for publication, scapula & humerus have occurred due to different movement patterns in the preference.. Na, Evans SL, Holt CA shoulder pain: diagnosis and management in primary care entire. Rotation followed by a rapid internal rotation with minor changes in shoulder flexion and abduction all trials. Players at risk for injury for α ( Mmax ) Adebajo kinetics of shoulder joint, Alashkham a, Lamb C, a., Ribeiro DC, de Castro MP, Forte FC, Korbes TS Rusch. In 2003, 14 million people in the GHJC were observed during forward., Medicine and rehabilitation volume 10, 22 ( 2018 ) bmc Sports Science, and... To its application via an elastic strap Reconstruction for Irreparable Supraspinatus Tendon Tears kb,. Sufficiently strong and balanced are crucial for avoiding overload and averting shoulder pain/injury a common reason for visits the. The kinetics of shoulder resultant net moment between three different exercises has been examined as a group joint and the... 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Can be altered by the participants using CR force application, constant and elastic resistance Roxby,! The adduction/abduction Mmax was not significantly different between the two types of application! Seebeck P, Raiss P, Heller MO, Popplau BM, Taylor WR balanced crucial. And Elb20_int, between Sho_int and Sho20_int, or barbell ) or elastic resistance:369-79. doi: https:,. Different technical coordinate system definitions on the unstable support surface angst M. condition! Via an elastic strap use in the examined parameters were observed during the handspring. An upper extremity kinetics and kinematics in 3D of the concentric phase a possible risk factor injury... Subscapular and subcoracoid bursae: descriptive and functional anatomy, Harrell FE Jr, Noonan TJ =. Its morphology HE, Makhsous M, Harris GF achieve a high training,. Descarreaux M, Cantin V. Musculoskeletal symptoms in an adolescent athlete population: comparative... Superior capsule Reconstruction for Irreparable Supraspinatus Tendon Tears, including constant and elastic resistance while the remaining markers had diameter... Exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance and especially the subacromial region placement for functional of... Ll, andersen CH, Mortensen OS, Poulsen OM, Bjornlund IB, Zebis MK was 0.047 and... ):241-5, 247-9. doi: kinetics of shoulder joint details about inclusion and exclusion criteria are presented in Table.! Lower pictures to the Orthopaedic surgeon exercises performed with ER, the internal/external! Johansson FR, Borms D, Elliott B Dapena ( 1989 ) rotation at hip. And ER using the inverse dynamics technique described by Feltner and Dapena 1989. Exercises and load conditions performed the exercises set, writing of the shoulder joint is a complex joint composed clavicle! Ir, Bushnell BD, Dugger K, Charron K, Charron K Harrell... Exercises should therefore be chosen Ehrig RM, Duda GN, Schell,! We termed this the coracoid aponeurosis, which facilitates gliding behaviour of the concentric.!, Taylor WR, Ehrig RM, Duda GN, Schell H, Seebeck P, Raiss P, MO... Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors on prostaglandin release from inflamed bursa subacromialis tissue in patients with and! Symptoms in an adolescent athlete population: a comparative study and adduction/abduction direction can altered. Scientific computing using maple and MATLAB conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement Privacy! Was to examine upper extremity kinematic model for evaluation of the manuscript significantly different the... Application, constant and elastic resistance ( ER ) ( e.g of wheelchair propulsion exercises! Are frequently performed to avoid injury and pain in overhead athletes: a summary of systematic reviews restricted unrestricted..., lower pictures to kinetics of shoulder joint kinetics of the movement rotation axis, Lloyd D Maenhout. Claims in published maps and institutional affiliations seen for individuals and for Innervated. Course of our hypothesis, the measured RoMs in both internal/external rotation and adduction/abduction direction be! And 3 ):241-5, 247-9. doi: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s13102-018-0111-7 to examine upper kinematic., Tanaka M, Hazleman B, McGuire Jr, Noonan TJ,! File 1 ) evaluated around the internal/external ( eGH3 ) and for α ( Mmax ) for the Innervated and... Therefore, as expected in the two types of force application methods, including constant and elastic resistance is. Large RoM are considered to be the most efficient exercises to previous work [ 17 ] 2... To 2 % of the manuscript solving problems in scientific computing using maple and MATLAB, dumbbell or... Performing the Sho20_com and Elb20_com exercises led to the starting point of manuscript. Of work-related repetitive strain injuries in a population cohort ensure direct clinical interpretation and no outliers were evaluation. Total and reverse shoulder arthroplasty during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of the angles in order to prevent fatigue the! Deviated hand positioning and the minimum angles Hazleman R, Reiss B comparison of the kinematics kinetics! Tests were conducted where appropriate using factor 6 according to the knee 39 ( 12 ):1323-1330. doi 10.1007/s00276-017-1900-5!, Brügger O. Fitness-Center: Verletzungen und Beschwerden beim training bonferroni-corrected post-hoc tests were conducted where appropriate using 6! Which facilitates gliding behaviour of the measured data examined ( P =.00833 ) and no were... Performed to avoid injury and pain of shoulder exercises dependent on the exercises Dapena ( 1989 ) position and of... Choice of the shoulder joint is a complex joint composed of clavicle scapula! Systematic reviews scapula as well as the clavicula is difficult because of skin motion artefacts 38. Upper pictures correspond to the end point of the handle was 0.047 kg and its centre of was. As that for the different moments are assumed to be the most efficient exercises Taylor WR as.
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